Bacteria, like other organisms, need for growth in certain nutrients. The composition of these nutrients should include all of the chemical elements that are needed to build cellular material for enzyme activity and for transport systems. In addition, the nutrients the body must supply the material used for the generation of biologically useful energy.
However, these organisms are an exception. Most organisms need sodium and chloride ions is small. Molibdenproteidy play an important role in nitrogen metabolism and oxidation of formate. Xanthine dehydrogenase also contains molybdenum. From selenproteidov, glitsinreduktaza contains selenium in the form of selentsisteina. Cobalt is required by all those micro-organisms in which the reaction is dependent on vitamin Bi2. Copper is present in a number of enzymes that transfer electrons from substrates to oxygen.
Major and minor bioelements
Only a small number of elements in the periodic need to organisms in relatively high concentrations (> 10-4 M) .. Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen - the main components of organic compounds in the tissues of various organisms. Sulfur is required for the synthesis of amino acids cysteine and methionine, and some coenzymes. Phosphorus is part of the nucleic acids, phospholipids, teichoic acids and nucleotides such as ATP, GTP, NAD and FAD. The other four major Bioelements - is the metal ions used as cofactors of enzymes, as well as metal components. For example, the majority of bioactive phosphate esters found in cells in the form of complexes with magnesium. Fosfolipoproteidy bacterial cell walls also form chelate complexes with magnesium ions.
Exoenzymes, such as amylase, protease, is a calcium-containing proteins, and dipikolinat calcium is an important component of endospores. Ions of bivalent and trivalent iron components are part of the electron-transport chain, such as cytochromes and zhelezoseroproteidy.
In addition to these ten major bioelements microorganisms still required and a number of other elements, but in small amounts. Zinc and manganese ions are necessary for all microorganisms. Zinc is particularly important because the RNA-and DNA polymerase are tsinkproteidam. Gallofilnym microorganisms require high concentrations of sodium chloride.